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General Collection Management Principles And Constraints

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II General Collection Management: Principles and Constraints

A. Currency of Collection Current information is required to support the teaching, learning, and research needs of all undergraduate academic programs and concentrations and graduate majors at St. John’s University. Though all programs require current sources, the issue of currency is especially critical in pure and applied sciences. In the humanities and social sciences, historical materials are also important and should be retained. Also, graduate programs require older materials to support historical research and comparative studies. The currency of the collection is ensured by ongoing selection and acquisition of new materials in all formats; consultation with teaching faculty regarding current curriculum needs and trends; and systematic withdrawal of dated materials.

B. Selection of Materials

General Policy

In support of the Libraries Going Digital initiative, the Libraries acquire materials in digital format whenever appropriate. By emphasizing the growth of the digital collection, the Library is supporting the Academic Computing Initiative and the University's commitment to providing a 21st century education for its student body.

Subject specialists are responsible for selecting materials for their subject area in all formats. Faculty, liaisons, administrators, staff, and students are actively encouraged to recommend items through a user-friendly online form. Because of the need for current materials in the Collection, selection must be done on an ongoing basis throughout the year.

1. Selection Sources

Publishers' catalogs and announcements, Choice and Library Journal reviews, and professional library journals are distributed to the library selectors who recommend titles for purchase. Selectors are also responsible for scanning subject periodical literature and standard review sources to identify titles to be acquired. Teaching faculty receive publishers' catalogs and announcements directly from the publishers and/or from the Library. Other selection sources include book reviews of major newspapers, such as The New York Times or The Wall Street Journal.

In the absence of a review in the professional literature, a selector should consider other criteria in determining whether to recommend acquisition of an item.

2. Selection Criteria

a) General Criteria for Selecting Materials

  1. Support of the curricula, especially undergraduate study and learning.
  2. Appropriateness for use in St. John's programs.
  3. Level of St. John's program in subject area (undergraduate, masters, or doctoral).
  4. Currency and timeliness of the material.
  5. Lasting or scholarly value of the material.
  6. Author qualifications and reputation.
  7. Publisher authority and reputation.
  8. High standards of quality in content, format, and/or literary merit.
  9. Favorable review in a professional journal.
  10. Gaps in the collection in subject area.
  11. Language; except for the Asian Collection, only very select non-English materials should be acquired..
  12. Budgetary considerations and price.
  13. Format of the material, with an emphasis on acquiring digital formats whenever appropriate.

b) Guidelines for Selecting Periodicals

In addition to the General Criteria, the following criteria are used when selecting periodicals:

  1. The academic program(s) that will benefit from the subscription, and the program(s) relative size and academic level.
  2. The journal’s reputation.
  3. Whether the journal is considered to be a core journal; for example, if it is indexed in Scopus or Web of Knowledge.
  4. Whether the journal is available on electronic format, and whether it is subject to electronic embargo.

c) Guidelines for Selecting Digital Materials

In support of the Going Digital initiative, the Libraries are actively acquiring electronic resources whenever appropriate. Among these are online databases, ejournals, ebooks, electronic government documents, and streaming media. Considerations for selecting digital materials are listed below:

  1. Cooperative collection development
    • Collaborate with WALDO and other consortia to obtain the best mix of electronic resources at the most favorable terms.

  2. Overlap with other electronic resources
    • Materials should not significantly duplicate the contents of other database subscriptions or print holdings. The Libraries must consider the increase in coverage versus costs incurred.

  3. Community served by electronic resources
    • Intellectual level of material and depth of coverage consistent with the needs of St. John's undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and administration.
    • Ease of search, and suitability of search methodology for the academic environment.

  4. Technical and service concerns
    • Vendor reputation and performance.
    • Timeliness of updates.
    • Compatibility with existing hardware and software.
    • Remote access for authorized users both on and off campus.
    • Availability of various file formats, i.e. Word, PDF, or Excel.
    • Interoperability with bibliographic utilities such as RefWorks.
    • Support for collaborative learning.
    • Ability to customize search or other session preferences, and to save information between sessions.
    • Ability to download and print selected materials.
    • Restrictions (if any) on multiple users.
    • Requirements for proprietary or special software, individual accounts, or individual passwords.
    • Ability to integrate with OPAC, confederated search, or other databases.
    • Ease of removal if subscription is cancelled.
    • Copyright and licensing restrictions.
    • Provisions for adding or removing individual items as required to the subscription.
    • Web usage statistics and reporting tools that conform to ICOLC standards.
    • Provisions for long term ownership of archival copies.
    • Adequacy of online help or other documentation.
    • Availability of timely technical support.
    • Need for staff assistance and training.

  5. Relationship to mmaterials in other formats
    • Will electronic resources duplicate, replace or supplement print sources?
    • Do electronic resources reflect the excellence, comprehensiveness, and authoritativeness expected of materials in other formats?
    • Are the same materials available electronically from other aggregators or publishers?

3. Guidelines for Media Center Materials

Media Center materials are selected in accordance with the General Selection Criteria. The preferred format for media is digital, including streaming media, digital downloads, and DVD’s. Film and videocassettes should be collected only when not available in other formats. LPs should not be added to the collections except in rare circumstances.

The quality, standards, and technical considerations unique to media materials must be assessed by the Media Librarian before these materials are added to the collection.

C. Specific Formats

The Libraries collect print, non-print, and digital materials.

1. Print Materials Collected by the Libraries

  • Monographs: Books, pamphlets, and sets acquired through firm orders and on approval. These are selected as per the appropriate subject section of this policy.

  • Periodicals, magazines, newspapers, and newsletters: Acquired through subscriptions. Periodicals are defined as publications of a non-monographic nature, that appear more than once a year and are expected to continue for an indefinite time.

  • Non-periodical serials: Annuals, yearbooks, irregular serials, indexes, directories, and loose-leaf services acquired through standing orders.

  • Children's books: Books written at the reading level of children and young adults.

  • St. John's University dissertations and theses: Publications written as part of degree requirements have been collected in both paper (Reserve) and microform (Reference). Recent dissertations and theses are available online.

  • Textbooks: Publications used for the study of a particular subject or as manuals of instruction. Intended for classroom use, they often come with teachers guides and are frequently updated. The Libraries purchase k-12 textbooks for the IMC Collection, Main Library and Educational Materials Collection, Staten Island Library. A textbook may be purchased for a subject collection only if is a classic, if it represents a major achievement in the field, or is written by a University faculty member (for the Faculty Publications Collection).

  • Other print materials: Study guides, maps, posters, musical scores, and tests should be acquired in accordance with appropriate subject sections of this policy.

2. Non-Print Physical Materials Collected by the Libraries

  • Media and Audiovisual Materials. Materials in audio and visual formats which convey information primarily by sound and image rather than by text. Many of these materials require the use of special equipment in order to be seen or heard. They include streaming media, computer files, DVDs, CDs, 16mm films, filmstrips, video cassettes, compact discs, audio cassettes, and records. Multimedia sets covering a wide variety of subject areas are acquired for the IMC and the Media collections.

  • Microforms (film, fiche). Microfilm is a photograph on cellulose tape. It may be negative or positive and is either 16mm or 35mm. Microfiche is a flat sheet of photographic film which has microimages of the text of a publication. Ultrafiche (Ultramicrofiche) is a microfiche with such small images that approximately 3,000 pages may be accommodated on one 4 x 5 fiche. The Main Library has collections on ultrafiche including the Library of English Literature (LEL) and the Library of American Civilization (LAC) series in the General Periodicals Area. Microforms are acquired to save space (periodicals and newspapers) or to provide research materials (unpublished documents, dissertations and theses.) When possible and appropriate, microforms are being replaced with digital counterparts.

  • Other Non-Print Materials. Realia (globes, toy clocks, musical instruments), manipulatives (blocks, rods), games (role playing games and educational games) should be acquired in accordance with appropriate subject sections of this policy.

3. Digital Materials Collected by the Libraries

Digital materials formats utilized by the Libraries include: online databases, ejournals, ebooks, DVDs and CDs, streaming media and digital downloads, and computer software. Types of electronic formats include: a) bibliographic files, such as abstracting and indexing services; b) non-bibliographic files which present full-text or numeric data; and c) instructional software which present concepts to facilitate instruction.

The following are some specific examples of digital formats:

  • Computer software and files. Software refers to programs executed by a microcomputer. A computer file is a file encoded for manipulation by a computer.

  • DVDs and CDs. Compact Disks are plastic disks with a reflective metal coating which are read by a small laser beam. CDs have largely been supplanted by DVDs, which have faster response times and increased storage capacity. CDs and DVDs require special players that are now built into most computers, including St. John’s laptops.

  • Online databases. Subscriptions to online databases are available through the Library’s webpages, both on and off campus. Additionally, the Libraries provide access to online databases via Dialog (searches conducted by librarians for SJU patrons by appointment). An increasing number of full-text articles and books, image files, and statistical files are available online to the University community.

  • Ebooks and ejournals. Selected ebooks and online journals are currently being acquired.

D. Languages and Translations

General Policy

  • Materials are collected primarily in English.

  • Foreign Languages: Selected foreign language materials should be added as appropriate for specific collections or subject disciplines if required by curriculum.

  • Translations: The Libraries collect translations of works. If an English translation of a foreign language title is not available, acquiring a translation into one of the languages collected by the Library is acceptable. Translations of works originally published in English are collected only if necessary for comparative study or literary criticism. Otherwise, works originally published in English that are translated into other languages are not added to the collection.

E. Faculty Publications and Local Authors/Interests

General Policy

The Library collects materials by local authors and University faculty in accordance with the following guidelines:

Faculty Publications

The Libraries acquire all publications (with the exception of individual periodical articles) written or edited by St. John's University faculty members during their tenures at St. John's. Typically, the Main Library acquires at least two copies of each publication, one for the circulating collection and the other for the Faculty Publications Collection. If appropriate, copies also may be acquired for collections at one or more of the University’s other campuses. It is the responsibility of the individual faculty members to inform the Library about their publications. The Library requests that faculty provide copies of their publications to be added to the collection. If the faculty member cannot provide the item, the Library should attempt to purchase it. Monographs to which faculty members make a significant contribution (e.g. chapter) could also be considered for the Faculty Publications Collection.

Local Authors

The Libraries collect materials addressing local interests or written or by local authors as these materials relate to the University and its' programs, especially “Discover New York” which is part of the core curriculum.

The Libraries are actively collecting books related to Staten Island, many of which are by local authors. All of these books are kept on reserve at Staten Island.

F. Recreational Reading

General Policy

Recreational reading materials are provided on a limited basis in support of leisure reading.

  • Popular Periodicals: The Library subscribes to a small number of general interest periodicals which are intended for recreational and general information reading. The latest issue of selected, popular titles (e.g. New York, Rolling Stone, Reader's Digest) are placed on display.
  • Leased materials: St. John's University Libraries lease selected, new popular fiction and non-fiction titles from the McNaughton Book Service. New titles are selected each month by Library faculty for the Main Library and for Staten Island. Some of these titles may be added to the permanent collection.

G. Acquisitions Procedures Affecting Collection Policy

General Policy

Library materials are acquired through a variety of methods, including approval plans, blanket orders and memberships, standing orders, firm orders, gifts and exchanges, and government documents through depository programs. The Voyager Acquisitions Module facilitates all order processing and expenditure control. All materials for Queens, Staten Island, Rome, and Oakdale campuses are acquired and processed through Collections & Information Management at the Main Library.

Firm Orders
The Main Library acquires materials selected, regardless of format or language, by Library and teaching faculty. These materials are purchased from domestic and foreign vendors or directly from publishers. The Acquisitions Department attempts to obtain materials at the best possible cost.

Approval Plans
Approval plans provide materials for Queens and Staten Island campuses. Comprehensive approval plans assure the greatest possible representation of current materials to support academic programs. They complement the selection of monographic materials by Library and teaching faculty. Approval plans supply materials published in the U.S., Canada, U.K, and Australia. The Libraries develop specific profiles by discipline with individual vendors, who use the profile to provide either books or selection slips. Approvals must be carefully monitored and supplemented with firm orders made by Subject Specialists in order to best serve the needs of the St. John’s University community.

Blanket Orders and Memberships
The Libraries maintain membership in professional organizations for the purpose of receiving their publications if they cannot be acquired in any other way, or if there is a cost advantage. Blanket orders are maintained with organizations (e.g., American Library Association) so that the Libraries receive all their publications. Blanket orders must be carefully reviewed on an ongoing basis.

Standing Orders and Continuations
Both the Main Library and Staten Island Library maintain a number of standing orders for works published as continuations. Continuations include series, non-periodical serials, supplements to existing works, indexes to serials or sets, and works that are likely to have supplements or frequent revisions. All standing orders must be reviewed on an ongoing basis. Careful examination and reevaluation of titles placed on standing order is required, since the cost of these publications is generally high. If no justifiable need exists and they do not directly support the curricula, their purchase should be deferred. If a standing order is neccessary, selectors should also consider whether each continuation of the work needs to be acquired.

When a new subscription is recommended, the Head of Serials reviews the publication using the guidelines for selecting periodicals. The Head of Serials may consult with Subject Specialists; teaching faculty and academic departments; the Electronic Resources Advisory Committee; and others.

Government Documents Depository Program
A selective depository program exists in the Main Library for documents published by the United States Government Publications Office. Documents that are relevant to the University's academic programs and meet the needs of the University community receive primary consideration for selection. A list of selected items is submitted to the Government Printing Office. All efforts should be made to acquire government documents in digital format.

H. Gifts

General Policy

The Libraries accept donated materials selectively. It is preferable to obtain a list of materials to be donated before accepting a gift, so that its' appropriateness can be determined. If it cannot be used at St. John's, the Libraries may be able to recommend other worthy causes that may benefit from the gift.

All gifts are accepted with the understanding that upon receipt, the Libraries acquires ownership and therefore may use materials at their discretion. Many items that are not added to the Collection will be sold at the ongoing book sale in Queens and Staten Island to benefit the Libraries.

Gifts received on Staten Island are evaluated by the appropriate subject bibliographer at that campus. All items to be added to the Collection are forwarded to the Main Library for processing. Gifts not accepted at Staten Island may also be sold at the ongoing book sale at that campus.

Prospective donors may contact the Acquisitions Coordinator in Queens or the Library Director at Staten Island.

Acknowledgments of Gifts
Gifts for the Main Library are acknowledged by the Acquisitions Coordinator. Gifts for the Staten Island Library are acknowledged by the Director of the Staten Island Library. Acknowledgments are usually made for the entire gift. In the case of rare or valuable gifts, individual titles may be listed when requested by the donor. Monetary appraisals of gifts are not provided.

I. Collection Maintenance: Withdrawals

General Policy

To eliminate dated information and in view of space considerations, Library collections should be weeded systematically. Some distinctive Library collections have separate weeding guidelines and criteria. When in doubt about weeding decisions, consultation with the Acquisitions Coordinator and appropriate teaching faculty is advised.

1. Method of Withdrawals

The Voyager Circulation Module can be used as an aid in making withdrawal decisions. Relevant information includes:

  • Number of historical charges
  • Number of historical browses
  • Date of last transaction

2. Withdrawal Criteria

Weeding criteria are based on the material's relation to the academic curriculum and the type, level, and quantity of faculty or student research being carried on in a particular area. Also, the material's physical condition, language, age, and appropriateness of its content are directly related to weeding decisions. To determine whether to withdraw a title, the following criteria should be taken into account:

  • Age of the book and its relation to the curriculum: Retain materials that are still current and relevant to the program. Use the copyright date and the date of purchase to determine the book's age. Withdraw dated materials or those that contain inaccurate or misleading information.
  • Availability of later editions in the collection: Only retain earlier editions if there is a compelling reason, i.e. they contain sections useful for comparison, research, instruction, or historical value.
  • Circulation/In-house use: Heavy, recent circulation or in-house use (browsing), indicate the need to retain a title. If an item did not circulate within the past ten years, it should be considered for withdrawal. This does not apply to non-circulating works or multivolume sets.
  • Works that have been superseded or cumulated in more comprehensive publications.
  • Incomplete series or series/serials and subscriptions that have been dropped when they no longer support the academic programs.
  • Volumes acquired by mistake, e.g. textbooks, vanity press titles.
  • Volumes whose poor physical condition make them unsuitable for circulation, and cannot be repaired. If appropriate, consider replacement with the most current edition, or a similar title in the same subject area.
  • In general, duplicate copies should be withdrawn. There should be no duplication among campuses, except for special circumstances.
  • Availability of electronic copy.

3. Withdrawal Guidelines for General Subject Areas

Humanities - Withdraw previous editions if later editions are available containing new or revised information. Be guided by usage patterns and a title's support of the curriculum.

Pure and Applied Sciences - Weed systematically, since scientific information changes very rapidly.

  • Pure Science - withdraw after five years.
  • Mathematics - withdraw after ten years.
  • Computers hardware and technology - withdraw after five years.
  • Computer software - withdraw when dated, usually less than five years.
  • Medicine and health – withdraw after five to ten years.
  • Pharmacy and allied health professions - withdraw after five to ten years.

Social Sciences - Withdraw books that contain outdated information no longer current; however, keep if useful even when old. Generally, withdraw when works do not reflect current knowledge on the subject. Since topical materials in social sciences often become dated, they need to be reviewed frequently for continued retention.

4. Withdrawal Guidelines for Periodicals and Serials

Withdrawal Considerations for Periodicals and Serials - Proposed January 2008

As journals are increasingly available online, many print journals are being used less frequently by students and faculty. In addition, the Libraries' space restrictions make it less possible to keep large numbers of journals "just in case" they may be needed. If articles are not availble online or in print, ILL can be used to obtain articles for patrons. Liaison and faculty recommendation can be very useful in helping to identifying candidates for withdrawal.

The following considerations should guide the weeding process:

  • Electronic counterparts

If there is an electronic counterpart, the journal can be withdrawn. It is not neccessary to have the complete archives available online in order to withdraw the journal.

  • Support for the curriculum

The periodical collections should support the curriculum as it exists today. Sources can include faculty recommendations, bulletins, course schedules, and [[Institutional Research]|]. We should collect most extensively in areas that are central to the curriculum or in which there are graduate programs.

  • Periodicals that are primarily in a foreign language

These are strong candidates for withdrawal. A possible exception are theological or philosophical journals, where core foreign language journals may be retained. Literary, science, and social science journals that contain more than half foreign language materials should withdrawn in most circumstances.

  • Popular journals

These do not fit the Collection's profile and can be withdrawn in most instances.

  • Trade journals

In general, trade journals do not match the Collection's profile. However, trade journals may have continuing value, especially in business.

  • National journals other than U.S.

Unless there is a very specific reason, these journals should not be kept, i.e. Indian Journal of Sociology, Israeli Journal of Mathematics.

  • Availability

Periodicals that are ubiquitous may be withdrawn since they are easy to acquire elsewhere. For more obscure journals, Worldcat may be consulted before to see if other libraries have the journal in the metropolitan area. If St. John's is the only holder, the journal may be retained.

''[This is what it said before....

When applying general criteria to the weeding process, consider the following:

  • Does the title still support the curriculum?
  • Has the serial ceased publication?
  • How complete is the set?
  • Is information in the periodical or serial obsolete?
  • Is it already available on microfilm or microfiche?
  • Has the material been indexed?
  • Is the journal available online? If so, how complete are the backfiles? Is there an embargo period? Does the Library have ownership or access rights?]''

5. Materials That Should Not Be Withdrawn

  • Items listed in one of the standard catalogs or bibliographies.
  • Classics and books of historical value to research and instruction.
  • Works published by St. John's University Press.
  • Works written by St. John's University faculty.

6. Discarding Withdrawn Materials

After evaluation, items withdrawn from the Collection should be disposed of in a way most beneficial to the Libraries. This includes by sale or gift to the University Community, or by donation to humanitarian or other worthy causes.

J. Collection Maintenance and Preservation

General Policy

The Libraries take measures to preserve the physical condition of materials contained in the collection. The majority of new paperback acquisitions are bound to extend their shelf life. Items that become damaged or worn may be repaired by the Preservation Unit; or they may be replaced by print or online versions, provided they still support the curriculum.

1. Preservation of new items

Some new paperback items are bound after acquisition. The Head of Serials or other Library faculty determine which items are bound in-house by the Preservation Unit and which are sent out for commercial binding. One criteria is the cost of replacement versus the cost of binding.

Paperbacks receiving in-house binding include items that are saddle stapled, items with a strong original binding that are not expected to have heavy use, and many computer books which, because of the timely nature of their content, need to be processed quickly.

Paperbacks sent for commercial binding receive either Class A binding or the less expensive Commercial Shiny binding. Expensive items, science books, and items with glossy pages receive Class A binding. All others receive Commercial Shiny binding.

2. Preservation of older items

The Preservation Unit of the Library is responsible for repairing and rebinding certain older, damaged books in the collection. The decision to repair, rebind, or withdraw a book is made by the Acquisitions Coordinator or a subject bibliographer who determines whether or not the item should be retained in the collection.

The Acquisitions Coordinator determines whether it is feasible to repair an item and recommends a method of preservation. Old items will be checked for online availability before being sent to be repaired or bound, especially those that are out of copyright.

If the text block is clean and intact and the paper is not brittle, books can be rebound. Torn or loose pages can be repaired, and missing pages photocopied from another copy. Items beyond repair are replaced if they are available and if the cost is not prohibitive. If they cannot be replaced, the Preservation Unit should place the damaged item in a wrapper or a box to prevent further deterioration.

The only items in the Collection that are eligible for microfilming or digitizing for preservation purposes are materials in the University Archives. These include all vital University records, some fragile materials, and some important historical items.

K. Multiple Copies

General Policy

It is the general policy of the St. John's University Libraries to purchase one copy per title and avoid unnecessary duplicate purchase of library materials, with the following exceptions:

  • Reserve items needed on multiple campuses.
  • Items that circulate frequently, or that are needed by a large number of students in a given subject area. This may include works by English and American authors, such as Hemingway, Fitzgerald, or Faulkner.
  • Reference materials duplicated among various Library departments as necessitated by demand, access, or Library hours.
  • Some faculty publications (one circulation, one Faculty Publications Collection)
  • In general, those materials that require simultaneous usage should be acquired in digital format.

Duplication Between SJU Libraries

The Library’s multiple campus operation requires proportional distribution of resources and services to enable them to accomplish their mission. Each Library should purchase essential reference items and materials which support the curriculum regardless of duplication in the other campus Library. Whenever possible, materials that are needed on multiple campuses should be acquired in digital format. Very expensive reference items should be purchased for one campus only. A core collection will thus be housed on both campuses to provide adequate services.

Staten Island relies on the Queens campus library to provide, through inter-campus loan, subject depth and research level materials. Typically, multiple copies are not purchased for Staten Island.

L. Reserves [must be revised to reflect electronic reserves]

General Policy

Reserve collection information is available in the Library’s online catalog. Reserve materials include books, pamphlets, and photocopies that have been selected by teaching faculty for either recommended or required reading. These materials may be part of the Library's collections (class reserve) or they may be faculty's personal copies (personal copy reserve). Certain heavily used reference materials and University publications are also kept on reserve to ensure access for all who need to use them. These items may be placed on reserve by any Library department due to anticipated high use and/or probability of mutilation or theft. Where possible, and in accordance with “fair use” guidelines, reserve materials are available electronically via the Library’s ereserve system.

University publications kept on reserve include current SJU yearbooks, course bulletins and student newspapers. The loan period for reserve materials in Both Libraries can be up to two hours, overnight, or up to and including seven days. The loan period can be determined by the teaching faculty.

Requests to place items already available in the collection on reserve in the Main Library require a two week notice in advance of the assignment. Staten Island reserve materials require a one week notice. For both campuses, reserve requests are handled in the order they are received.

Reserve materials are removed on request of the faculty member who placed the material on reserve.

M. Replacement of Lost or Damaged Material

The general criteria for selection apply to lost and worn out materials if these materials are to be replaced in the collections. In addition, consider the following:

  • Past usage.
  • If item is in print.
    • Date of publication.
  • Availability of later editions or other titles in subject area if title is no longer available.

Availability in the collection of other materials and formats covering subject area.

N. Materials Not To Be Acquired

While it is the policy of the Libraries to be open to the purchase of all appropriate materials, the following selected categories are usually not acquired:

  • Textbooks used for University courses.
  • Hobby materials, such as practical how-to books.
  • Mass market paperbacks.
  • Catalogs, such as stamp, coin, boat and automobile pricing guides.
  • Preliminary editions.
  • Spiral bindings except for IMC/Educational Materials collections.
  • Ephemera.
  • Subject areas outside the Collection profile.
  • Duplicate materials available in other formats.

In addition, the Staten Island Library does not collect the following categories of material:

  • Audiovisual materials, including videocassettes, films, slides, records, and CDs/DVDs.
  • Rare books and manuscripts.
  • Dissertations and theses.
  • Artworks and posters.

Exceptions are made on a case by case basis if it can be determined that these materials meet specific curricular needs.

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